Adult Diaper: Adult diapers are diapers made to be worn by those with a body larger than a child. Adult diapers can be necessary for adults with some conditions, and can also be referred to as briefs.


Bladder infection: A bladder infection is an infection of the bladder. Women have a higher risk of contracting bladder infections, and some people can be at greater risk than others. Some infections do not have any symptoms. Symptoms include frequent urge to urinate, and painful burning when urinating.


Bladder leakage: Another term for urinary incontinence. Bladder leakage is a difficulty in controlling the bladder, which can result in an involuntary loss of urine.


Blood in the urine: Also known as hematuria. Blood in the urine can be caused by a number of disorders, including infections, stones in the urinary tract, and cancer. May be visible to the naked eye or visible only under a microscope, and can be accompanied by pain in some cases.


Cystoscopy: A cystoscopy is a procedure on which a lighted optical instrument is inserted through the urethra into the bladder.


Enuresis: Involuntary loss of urine is known as enuresis. Enuresis that occurs at night while asleep is known as nocturnal enuresis or bedwetting.


Estrogen: A female hormone that is produced by the ovaries, and in small amounts by the adrenal cortex, placenta, and male testes. Estrogen guides sexual development, and influences menstruation, lactation, mood, and the aging process. Production of estrogen varies across the female lifespan, reaching adult levels during puberty and decreasing during menopause. Estrogen deficiency and excess can both have various side effects.


Functional Incontinence: Functional incontinence is when an individual has control over their own urination and has a fully functional urinary tract, however they cannot get to a bathroom in time due to a physical or cognitive disability. Functional incontinence can be caused by conditions like arthritis, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease.


Incontinence: Incontinence is the inability to hold urine in the bladder, keep feces in the rectum, or to control excretions.


Incontinence Pads: Incontinence pads are similar in appearance to sanitary pads, however they are designed to hold significantly more liquid. Pads are usually plastic and chemical based and disposable, and come equipped with an adhesive layer so that they can be secured inside regular underwear.


Involuntary: Involuntary actions do not occur in accordance with the conscious will of the individual.


Kegel exercises: Kegel exercises are exercises designed to strengthen and increase elasticity in the pelvic floor muscles. Kegel exercises may be recommended as treatment for urinary incontinence, vaginal looseness after childbirth, and incompetent cervix.


Menopause: Menopause is the time in a woman’s life when menstruation stops permanently, signalling the end of childbearing years. Menopause is defined as when there has been no menstrual period for 12 consecutive months. Menopause is caused by the ovaries naturally decreasing their production of oestrogen and progesterone. Menopause side effects include hot flashes, dry vagina, a decline in sex drive, mood swings, forgetfulness, and trouble sleeping. Menopause usually occurs around the age of 50, however there is great variation in age with women experiencing menopause anywhere from the age of 30 through to in their sixties.


Micturition: Micturition is the act of passing urine.


Muscle Contraction: The tightening and shortening of a muscle.


Nocturia: Nocturia is the condition of excessive urinating at night, causing sleep loss. Nocturia can be a sign of an underlying condition, such as diabetes, urinary infection or pregnancy.


Nocturnal Enuresis: Nocturnal enuresis is an involuntary loss of urine while asleep


Overactive bladder: Overactive bladder occurs when the muscular wall of the bladder suddenly involuntarily contracts, causing an immediate unstoppable urge to urinate. Overactive bladder is the cause of urge incontinence. Treatments include pelvic floor muscle strengthening, behavioural therapy, and prescribed medications.


Overflow Incontinence: Overflow incontinence occurs when the bladder does not completely empty when going to the toilet, and can lead to frequent urine leakage. Overflow incontinence can be caused by an obstruction to the bladder, or a lack of proper bladder contraction. Overflow incontinence often occurs as a result of certain medications, conditions like diabetes or multiple sclerosis, or spinal injury.


Pelvic Floor Exercises: Pelvic floor exercises involve contraction and relaxation of pelvic floor muscles. The exercises are designed to strengthen the muscles, enabling better urethral closure pressure. Pelvic floor exercises are one of the most common treatments for urinary incontinence.


Pelvic floor muscles: Pelvic floor muscles are muscles located in your pelvic. They form a sling between your legs, which extends from the pubic bone to the base of your spine.


Perimenopause: Perimenopause is the transition between when the first changes of menopause occur, and when menopause is officially reached. Perimenopause usually takes place over several years, and is marked by fluctuations in hormone levels produced by the ovaries.


Physical therapy: Physical therapy is a type of rehabilitative health using specially designed exercises and equipment to regain or improve physical abilities.


Post-micturition dribble: Post-micturition dribble is an involuntary loss of urine that occurs immediately after urination. Post-micturition dribble is more common in men, and is caused by weak pelvic floor muscles.


Prostate: The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system which is located just below the bladder. The prostate is shaped like a chestnut, and it surrounds the beginning of the urethra.


Reflex Incontinence: Reflex incontinence is a loss of bladder control without any warning, and is usually caused by a neurological impairment which stops the brain from realising that the bladder is full. Reflex incontinence is caused by things like spinal cord injuries and damage from surgery.


Stress Incontinence: Bladder leakage that occurs during activities like exercising, sneezing or coughing, is called stress incontinence. Stress incontinence occurs when pressure is placed on the abdomen. Stress incontinence is often caused by weakened pelvic floor muscles, and is particularly common for women after childbirth.


Underactive Bladder: an underactive bladder holds more urine than normal, and can be prone to small bladder leaks if the bladder is full.


Urethra: The urethra is the tube that leads from the bladder, and transports urine to be discharged outside the body. In men, the urethra travels through the penis. In women, the urethra is much shorter and emerges above the vaginal opening.


Urethral sphincter: The urethral sphincter is a muscular mechanism that controls the retention and release of urine from the bladder. The internal sphincter is part of the muscular bladder wall, and prevents urine from entering the urethra. The intern sphincter is controlled involuntarily by the brain. The external sphincter is a layer of muscle called the urogenital diaphragm which supports the pelvis and stops urine from being discharged from the body. The external sphincter is under voluntary control.


Urethritis: Urethritis is an inflammation of the urethra, and can be caused by irritation from conditions like cystitis, or from sexually transmitted diseases.


Urge incontinence: A sudden involuntary contraction of the bladder can cause an overwhelming urge to urinate which cannot be controlled. This is called urge incontinence, and can often result in bladder leakage before you can make it to a toilet. Urge incontinence is caused by the main contractor muscle in the bladder, which cannot properly control when to store or release urine. Treatments can include pelvic floor exercises, behavioural therapy, and medication.


Urinalysis: Urinalyses is a test done to analyse urine, which can be used to detect diseases like diabetes, kidney disease, and gout.


Urinary incontinence: Urinary incontinence is the involuntary loss of urine, due to an inability to hold urine in the bladder. There are several different types of urinary incontinence, including stress incontinence and urge incontinence. Treatment will vary depending on the type of incontinence and the cause. Treatments can include lifestyle therapy, behaviour therapy, pelvic floor exercises, medication, and surgery.


Urinary tract: The urinary tract consists of the organs in the body that produce, store, and discharge urine, including the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.


Urinary tract infection: A urinary tract infection is an infection of any of the organs that are part of the urinary tract. Urinary tract infections usually result in a frequent urge to urinate and pain when urinating. Urinary tract infections are common in females than males. Urinary tract infections can result in short term urinary incontinence.


Urinary urgency: Urinary urgency is an immediate unstoppable urge to urinate, caused by the muscle wall of the bladder suddenly involuntarily contracting.